Article: Science, technology and environment in Cuba: 30 years of Citma

Article: Science, technology and environment in Cuba: 30 years of Citma
Article: Science, technology and environment in Cuba: 30 years of Citma

Round Table.- The Minister of Citma, Dr.C. Eduardo Martínez Díaz and other directors of this ministry will appear this Friday at the Round Table to analyze the importance of the emergence of Citma 30 years ago and the current results in Science, Technology and Innovation, in environmental activity and in the promotion and development of potential scientist.

A science that deepens

Ander Xavier Tamayo (Journalism student) and Yanet Alina Camejo Fernández

Sierra Maestra

This April 21 marks the 30th anniversary of the creation of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Citma) of Cuba, and with it the territorial delegations in each province. During these three decades, Citma has guided, organized, accompanied and promoted a science that is carried out for the benefit of society.

About his future in the province of Santiago de Cuba, Dr. C. José Alejandro Zapata Balanqué, delegate of Citma, tells us:

“In the 90s, Commander in Chief Fidel Castro, in one of his visits, spoke of the need for the development of science in the territory. At that time (1990-1994) the National Center for Seismological Research, Megacem, the Eastern Center for Ecosystems and Biodiversity, the Solar Energy Research Center, the Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels and the National Center for Applied Electromagnetism and Medical Biophysics, which were part of the research carried out at the University of Oriente, but which became Entities of Science, Technology and Innovation,” said the Researcher, Full Professor and Academician of Merit of the Cuban Academy of Sciences.

“All these centers were created to carry out basic and applied research, which was what ruined the growth of knowledge, with interrelation with many activities that were carried out in other provinces.

“One of the first results that came out was the study of sites to install fields of renewable energy sources, wind turbines and solar panels with Centers of the University of Havana, the Atlas of Santiago de Cuba, directed by Dr. C. Nicasio Viña Bayés. The seismological stations in the east of the country were completed. Research began and studies of protected areas were completed and part of those related to applied magnetism were strengthened.

“In that period, perhaps a little more recent, work was done in the scientific pole of the East whose level of activity has declined over time and now it is about strengthening it again from the base.”

The science of now

“In these 30 years, work has been done to revitalize science in the country. There is the Government Management System with science and technology, which gives Citma the task of being the body that focuses the activities and accompanies this entity in everything related to our mission, emphasizing the innovation actions that are necessary. in the introduction of the results of knowledge.

“Recently they asked about the importance of research and how, despite the fairly large level of knowledge they provide, their results are not introduced into social practice, in the communities to begin to transform the banks of problems that the territories have. .

However, that is the current trend, to introduce all results in order to resolve situations and move towards sustainable development.

“In fact, we are entering the second stage of Task Life for climate change actions, we are working on the circular economy, and territorial development programs are being promoted. The programs and projects are being relaunched again, insisting and influencing the approval of those that have economic feasibility and an innovation outlet.

“In this sense, we are working again on food production, health and energy projects, and we are opening the natural resources and environment projects. In 2025 we will open the program of social sciences and humanistic projects towards communities.

“From the legislative process, the State also accompanies this process and has been completing the legislation that has directly to do with the protection of nature.

“There is the decree Law 7 of the Project Program System. Law 150 on Natural Resources and the Environment. Law 155 on Cultural and Natural Heritage and others that are and will be released, such as Science. All of this is related to the legal issues that have to do with environmental damage, in order to solve the problems and penalize indiscipline, which is quite a lot.

“We work on the territorial and urban planning scheme in the province, introducing those issues that have to do with environmental elements, resulting from projects, which can be national, sectorial, territorial and those not associated with the programs.

“In addition, we work with the Government within the project program management system, with the Technical Advisory Councils, which exist at the provincial and municipal level, with which our specialists participate.

“Recently in terms of advice, we visited the Dos Ríos plant, the bioproducts factory and the Sugar Cane Research Institute, in Palma Soriano, in order to put science into sugar production. But these tips also present issues of the Maternal and Child Care Program, the tourism strategy and the local development project and others, showing that there are good working relations with the Government and the Party.”

Challenges and perspectives

“We have to improve and achieve much more. It is necessary to make some territorial entities understand the need to visualize the importance of project programs. Still, many are asked and do not have their problems defined, and we are not referring only to those that have to do with the environment and science management, but to those that emerge empirically and are not collected in writing. .

“There are professionals who make transformations in companies and do not write it down. Knowledge is being lost because they do not care about brands, patents and elements that have to do with the security and custody of existing knowledge and results.

“In my opinion, Citma has radiated. The Danger, Vulnerability and Risk studies are other of our strengths and the results are being introduced into the planning plan for urban activity. In Santiago de Cuba there are already PVRs that have to do with with earthquakes, droughts, landslides, intense rains, sea penetrations, strong winds and epizootics.

“Another result with great impact will be the study to reduce the viscosity of diesel used in thermoelectric plants, developed by the CNEA at ‘Antonio Maceo’, with the potential to radiate throughout the country. They place electromagnetic equipment in the diesel, fuel and water networks, to reduce the viscosity in the fuel network and in the water networks to reduce scale in boilers. At this time, the main problem that electricity generating plants have is due to scale, which means that from time to time, it is necessary to make shutdowns in order to provide maintenance.

“Likewise, this center is working at the Dos Ríos plant, putting magnets on the sugar transportation belts, which contributes to raising the quality by reducing steel particles and the percentage of incrustations to practically zero. This will contribute to the export of the sector.

“With the Territorial Standardization Office we are providing training on issues that have to do with quality, safety and food loss and waste. Specialists from the Office of Environmental Regulation and Safety work hard on pollution control and radioactive waste management. And the Environment Unit deals with matters related to the handling and management of the environment.

“All this is part of our actions, having a lot of potential with human resources, despite migrations. That is why we continue to stimulate our scientists, technicians and specialists, and today there is talk about increasing salaries, remuneration based on project participation and paying for knowledge, extremely important aspects.

“I think that, despite everything, we have to continue changing the thinking of many of the people who do science. Continue doing fundamental research, but focus more on the introduction of results and innovation. That they contribute to solving the major problems of the territory, which are surely issues that are resolved with research and sometimes with applied knowledge, because the reality is that the country does not have money, what it has is knowledge; as the Commander in Chief predicted, back in the 60s.

“Introducing and applying is our goal and that is what we are working on. We have specialists in all municipalities, very good working relationships with the University of Oriente and the University of Medical Sciences, with the Government and with the Branch of the Academy of Sciences in the southeast of the country, established since 2011.

“What these 30 years have come to do is promote the work of science, even that which is done outside our entities, because there are many people who have uncontrolled projects that can contribute to the advancement of the province.

“This April 21, congratulate all the people who love the sector, and not just those from Citma. I especially want to highlight people who are no longer here, but who have been important and are an inextricable part of the history of these three decades.

“Although there are many more, I will say names like: Daisy Reyes, Botany, who worked at Bioeco. Tomás Chuy, my brother and seismologist. Vitelio Ruiz and Eloína Millares, who had a lot of influence and insisted from Applied Linguistics. The last: Nicasio Viña Bayés, my father, who died recently, author of the Atlas of Santiago de Cuba and participated in the expedition: By canoe from the Amazon to the Caribbean. In general sense there are many that remain to be mentioned but they are and will be present; We must insist on young people writing the history of the centers and their scientific personalities,” Zapata concluded.

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