The San Juan people were part of the Revolution

The role of women, in 1810, was key to the revolutionary feat and the times that followed. Education in San Juan did not have so much to do with school, the King’s School and later the Homeland School, but rather with the formation of political notions. These issues that were talked about about the Revolution, the women spread inside the homes.

In this historical context, the jachallera Juanita Ormeño was 15 years old and was the only one who went out into the streets to celebrate the news of the May Revolution, which only arrived in San Juan on June 17, 1810.

Without a moment’s hesitation, Juanita Ormeño cut her braids, put on a blue and white dress that her mother had made for her, and went out to celebrate. She sang and danced in the town square and then entered the church of San José. It didn’t take long for those who disapproved of her behavior to appear and ended up attacking the 15-year-old girl, the only one in the town of Jáchal who dared to publicly celebrate the May Revolution.

The situation ended in a street brawl. But Juanita’s initiative was imitated by the rest of the residents, even in the city. This occurred on June 17, 1810, when news of the revolt against the royalists in Buenos Aires reached San Juan. Years later, José de San Martín punished Juanita’s attackers.

Bold and transgressive for the time, this jachallera dared not only to challenge the designs of fashion by cutting her hair like a man, but also by publicly expressing her political ideology.

This event, which lasted a few hours, served as an example for the rest of the province to come out to celebrate, according to historians. Thus, the figure of Juanita became over time the symbol of vindication of the female gender and freedom.

Aristocratic, indigenous, peasant and worker women also fought for their homeland

Women who actively participated in the revolutionary process began to appear in historiography. Social meetings, beyond being shown as something illustrative or decorative of a historical story, were very important because they were like today’s social networks, where revolutions were defined and news that came from abroad was learned there.

May 25 marked a before and after in Argentina, from that moment the country began a process of emancipation from the Spanish crown by popular will.
Since primary school, it is taught that the heroes of the country were men: Cornelio Saavedra, Juan José Castelli, Mariano Moreno and Manuel Belgrano, among others.
In this way, on May 25, 1810, the First Government Board of the Provinces of the Río de la Plata was formed after overthrowing Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros.

It is no coincidence that male heroes have remained in official history: at that time women were not allowed to participate in politics (publicly) and records of their presence are very scarce. However, his role was fundamental in the Revolution.

Currently, historians were able to corroborate that many aristocratic, indigenous, peasant and working women also fought for a more just, egalitarian and representative country.

Women in the 19th century were in charge of taking care of shops, family businesses and feeding their children when men went to battle or on campaign. They maintained the circular economy in cities and in homes. Furthermore, in the previous months of the Revolution, women were in charge of providing the living rooms of their own homes as a space for political discussion in the midst of the revolutionary feat.

In these private rooms, women had more possibilities to express their political position, generate actions with other women or advise their husbands on what to do with the future of the Río de la Plata.

 
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