The birth rate in Mendoza decreased and occupies one of the first positions in the country

The birth rate in Mendoza decreased and occupies one of the first positions in the country
The birth rate in Mendoza decreased and occupies one of the first positions in the country

Until now, more of the population works than the passive population in Argentina, but the yellow light went on on the demographic board: the number of births decreased by 38% from ten years to this point, and children up to 12 years old occupy 23% of the population. population. At the same time, women aged 60 and over represented, in 2022, 18.4% of the population and men 14.6%.

A game of tongs hangs over the national demographic bonus, as the base of the pyramid shrinks and life expectancy extends:

  • In Latin America, in 1950, life expectancy at birth, on average, was 48.6 years, while in 2023, according to ECLAC, it could be just over 75 years.
  • Births have decreased continuously since 2014, with a decrease of 36% in 2022.

The aging of the resulting population, in a context in which the retirement age is 60 years for women and 65 years for men, is not so noticeable, currently, due to the stagnation in the country’s development, but it would compromise a bonanza. future in the face of a possible demographic deficit.

The coordinator of the socio-demographic orientation of the Master’s Degree in Generation and Analysis of Statistical Information from the UniversityGladys Massé, clarified in that sense that “From a theoretical point of view, the demographic dividend is considered a window of opportunity to the extent that full employment policies and, in particular, those that involve formal work, lead to an increase in productivity and development. economic as well as social improvement”.

Argentina – according to the expert – could be going through the last few years to take advantage of the positive aspects of the demographic bonus, because, Although this is an aging population, significant demographic aging has not yet occurred and the proportion of the potentially active population is relatively high compared to the dependent population. To achieve this, it is essential to ensure an economy of basically formal full employment.

In the provinces

The largest percentage drop in births between 2021 and 2022 occurred in Santiago del Estero, with a reduction of 14.3% (live births fell from 13,623 to 11,677). The birth rate in Argentina (number of births per thousand inhabitants) was 10.7 in 2022 and is the lowest historical record.

The provinces that have a higher birth rate are: Misiones (15.2), Chaco (14.7) and Formosa (13.8). While the lowest rates are in the City of Buenos Aires (8) and Tierra del Fuego (8.5). Both indicators – births and birth rate – systematically decreased in the last eight available years.
In 2014, the birth rate was 18.4 and 777,012 births, figures that progressively decreased until reaching the record in 2022 (10.7 and 495,295).

The provinces in which the number of births decreased the most between 2014 and 2022 are: Tierra del Fuego (49%), Jujuy and the City of Buenos Aires (both with a decline of 44%), province of Buenos Aires and Mendoza (41%), Santa Cruz (40%), La Pampa and Chubut (38%), and Neuquén (37%). In all of them, the decrease in births exceeds the country’s average decline (36%).

According to the 2022 Census, the Argentine population shows a decrease in fertility.

Furthermore, women reach a higher level of higher or university education than men (33.8 versus 25.4, respectively), although 45% of them maintain – to a much greater extent than men (24%) – that their salary is minor due to her gender.

According to a report from Observatory of Human Development and Vulnerability of the Austral Universitywithin the Institute of Family Sciences, “since the last century, a change of unprecedented intensity in the history of humanity began, which is reflected in new patterns of fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization and aging.”

The report was presented on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the declaration of International Family Day, proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1994.

Researchers Dolores Dimier de Vicente and Lorena Bolzon analyzed how families in our country and the space of women around bonding structures and relationships have changed.

However, there is a significant proportion of the informal economy and/or high unemployment rates that have a negative impact because, for example, they do not fully contribute to the social security and social security systems, among other factors.

Fewer children per mother

Anyway, Population growth is conditioned by the decrease in the rate of children per womanespecially in the middle and upper classes, due to several factors, such as the delay in the age to begin motherhood, in many cases so as not to interrupt a professional career, and the decrease in marital-structure homes.

Argentine economic development is in danger: fewer births with long life expectancy. At the national level, the marriage rate, which indicates the number of marriages per 1,000 inhabitants, shows variable rates with a downward trend between 2001 and 2022.

Although the majority birth rate occurs in women between 25 and 29 years old, it is possible to observe an increase in motherhood among women in the 35-39 and 40-44 year-old range. The average age of mothers at giving birth has been increasing in recent years, reflecting a shift towards motherhood at older ages compared to previous decades and, at the same time, marking progress regarding teenage motherhood.

Since 2021, the majority birth rate occurs in women between 25 and 29 years old and second place is occupied by the age group between 30 and 34 years old. And it is possible to observe an increase in motherhood among women in the 35-39 and 40-44 age range. Maternity in children under 19 years of age shows a clear decrease in the last 10 years.

Decreased fertility

According to the 2022 Census, the population of our country shows a marked decrease in fertility and, at the same time, shows a more feminized and older sex composition. There are fewer children born alive per woman at the national level: from 1,533,421 women with more than 5 children in 2001 to 608,617 women, less than half, with the same number of children in 2022.

For the entire national population, the median age reached 32 years (34 for women and 31 for men). The above implies five years more than the median age recorded 30 years ago and accredits the aging of the population in the country.

Likewise, as age advances, women outnumber men: the ratio for people aged 85 and over is 228 women for every 100 men. “Although 2022 closed with an index of three points, which demonstrates a possible upward trend that will need to be evaluated in the coming years,” the report states.

However, 2022 was an especially productive year for the “culture of death”: The WHO issued its new guidelines for the practice of abortions, the first abortive combos were distributed (mifepristone + misoprostol), the first AIPEO Guide (Immediate contraception after obstetric event) was published and the ENIA Plan (for the eradication of unintentional pregnancy in adolescence) was extended to all districts.

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