Oaxaca Congress celebrates 201 years of existence

Oaxaca Congress celebrates 201 years of existence
Oaxaca Congress celebrates 201 years of existence

San Raymundo Jalpan, Oax. July 6, 2024.- The Congress of Oaxaca celebrates this Saturday 201 years of its establishment in the state.

According to the data contained in the book “Historia mínima del Poder Legislativo del Estado de Oaxaca”, published in 2011, it was on July 6, 1823 when the Congress of Oaxaca emerged, the constitutional body where the laws that govern the state are created and reformed.

On that date, the so-called First Provincial Congress was installed, under the presidency of Florencio Castillo, a cleric and politician originally from Costa Rica. This first Parliament was made up of 14 deputies and was established in a room of the so-called Casas Consistoriales, which today is known as the Government Palace. There, it was the first seat of what we know today as the Honorable Congress of the State of Oaxaca.

On January 10, 1825, the Constituent Congress was installed with 14 deputies. On that same date, the first Constitution of Oaxaca was promulgated, in which a Bicameral Congress was established, with a local Senate and a Chamber of Deputies.

Subsequently, on March 19, 1825, the First Constitutional Congress of the State was installed, made up of the majority of the deputies of the Constituent Congress, which lasted until June 17, 1827.

In 1827, the Second Constitutional Congress was held, where for three days it had its provisional headquarters in the town of Etla, and later it had another headquarters, in the house located in the small square of the Cathedral, in front of the Plaza called Los Cántaros, today Alameda de León.

Over time, the First Constitutional Congress of the State emerged, from 1858 to 1861. The Second Constitutional Congress followed, from 1861 to 1863. Then the Third Constitutional Congress of the State from 1863 to 1867, and so on until reaching the thirtieth Constitutional Congress of the State of Oaxaca, in the period from 1924 to 1926.

The Constituent Assembly of 1922 was responsible for promulgating the third Constitution of the State of Oaxaca, approved on April 4, 1922, and promulgated on April 15 of that year. This third Oaxacan Constitution is the one that has been in force since that date until now in this year 2024.

From 1926 to date, the Legislative Branch has operated under the name of the Legislature, which is why Parliament is known as the Legislature, with the first being the Thirty-First Legislature in 1926 to the current Sixty-Fifth local Legislature.

In 1965, the Parliament stands out because after 142 years of the emergence of the Congress of Oaxaca, made up during that time by male deputies, for the first time, in 1965, the first local female deputy of the state appeared, Martha Pazos Ortiz, who was a member of the Forty-Sixth Legislature, in the period from 1965 to 1968.

And so the corresponding Legislature continued for years until reaching 1977. Until that date, each Parliament since its inception had been characterized by being made up of up to 18 deputies, however, the Fiftieth Legislature in 1978 reformed articles 23, 31, 33, 99, 100 and 101 of the Constitution, which allowed the number of deputies to be integrated into Congress to be increased, being 18 deputies according to the principle of relative majority and six, in accordance with the principle of proportional representation.

In 1986, the Fifty-Second Legislature approved the Organic Law of the Legislative Branch of Oaxaca, which expanded the scope of Congress. Subsequently, the Fifty-Fifth Legislature, which was in office from 1992 to 1995, amended the local Constitution to increase the number of deputies elected by the principle of relative majority to 25 and by proportional representation to 17, as well as from 21 to 25 the number of deputies elected by a political party.

Thus, it was established that the State Congress must be made up of 42 deputies, and since the Fifty-Sixth Legislature, Parliament has been formed in this way.

The reforms and laws approved are not only for the state of Oaxaca, but have also been to modify and strengthen the Legislative Branch. Thus, in the Sixtieth Legislature, which operated from 2007 to 2010, the figure of the Political Coordination Board was instituted, which is the collegiate governing body of the Chamber of Deputies, made up of the coordinators of the parliamentary groups. Previously, the so-called Grand Commission operated.

In 2018, for the first time, Oaxaca had a Congress made up mostly of female deputies, with the Sixty-Fourth Legislature being made up of 23 female deputies and 19 male deputies.
And currently, the Sixty-Fifth local Legislature, which was installed in 2021 and will conclude its functions in 2024, is mostly made up of female deputies.

Likewise, for the next Legislature that will take office in November of this year 2024, the majority will be women.

Over the course of 201 years, the Congress of Oaxaca has also undergone physical changes, and has been located in 10 locations. Initially, it was located in the old Town Hall, now the Government Palace. Later, it moved to house number 3 of the Cathedral Square in the Alameda de León, the old convent of Villa de Etla, in the Plaza de los Cántaros, now the portals. Then, the temple of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, Tlaxiaco, the Juárez theater, the Álvaro Carrillo theater, El Tule, and finally, in San Raymundo Jalpan, the permanent headquarters.

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